Your Guide to Understanding the Key HVAC System Components

hvac system components

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Air conditioning and space heating account for about 51% of annual American households’ energy consumption. HVAC installation and maintenance can take a toll on a homeowner due to the expenses involved. Yet, living without one can make your home uncomfortable. 

As a homeowner, understanding how your HVAC system works gives you an advantage. You will be in a better position to maintain it while ensuring that your home remains comfortable and safe. If you want to know how to take care of your HVAC system, you need to know the components. 

Keep reading to know the key HVAC system components. 

AC Heat Exchanger

A heat exchanger is one of the parts of an HVAC system housing the furnace. When the thermostat activates the furnace, your heat exchanger warms the cool air and absorbs the heat. It then circulates the heated air through the ducts, which is released through the HVAC’S vents. 

This component is one of the most essential, making it necessary even in electric units. A heat exchanger comprises of temperature resistant materials. Therefore, it can’t crack or face other damages due to the heat. 

If your heat exchanger develops any problems, it might cause carbon monoxide leakage. Failure to detect this harmful gas can lead to nausea, headaches, and in extreme cases, death. HVAC maintenance is essential as an HVAC professional can address such an issue before it escalates. 

The Coils

Evaporator coils are some of the HVAC system components that facilitate the process of heat exchange. The coils have cold fluid that makes the air cool. When warm air passes over the coils, they absorb the heat, making it cool down. 

Coils play a crucial role in ensuring that the air conditioner functions optimally. Dirty coils slow down the process of heat exchange. Consequently, your air conditioner has to work harder to cool the air. 

An overworking AC consumes excess energy. Besides, the resulting air won’t be quality. It is vital to ensure that the coils remain clean to enhance energy efficiency. 

The Ducts

Ducts act as the delivery systems for the balanced air. They run through your house’s floors, ceilings, and walls. Ducts distribute cool or warm air through the registers or vents. 

Supply duct delivers the conditioned air, while return ducts take the spent air to the air handler or furnace. The ductwork needs to be in the right state to ensure quality air circulation in your home. 

Just like all other parts of an HVAC system, ducts can wear out over time. Regular inspection is necessary. You will know when to call a technician to avoid inefficiencies that might manifest through unusually high bills and issues in temperature. 

Blower Motor

An HVAC system has a blower motor, which powers the fan to move warm air through the ducts into your home. The blower motor pushes the air after reaching the preset temperature. It stops when all the rooms have the right temperature, which also signals combustion within the furnace to end until the next cycle. 

The two types of blower motors are single-speed or variable-speed motors. They both ensure that the temperature in a home is comfortable enough. Most homeowners opt for the variable-speed motors since they are energy efficient. 

You might need to replace your blower motor if your home feels cold even when the furnace is running continuously. Lubricate your motor and check if the belt has any wear and tear. Proper maintenance of your blower motor will ensure that your family enjoys comfortable temperatures through the seasons. 


The smart thermostat market is expected to grow by 29.5% by 2024. Thermostats are some of the HVAC system components that have been advancing over time, which explains the anticipated market growth. Currently, smart thermostats have gained unmatched popularity owing to their additional features. 

A thermostat is one of the most critical parts of an HVAC system. It has temperature sensors that determine the right time to turn the air conditioner and heater on or off. The thermostat connects to the HVAC via special wires. 

The smart or programmable thermostats are gaining traction due to their convenience and efficiency. With a smart thermostat, you can control the temperatures in your home from anywhere. These thermostats are automatic, which enhances energy efficiency in your home. 

The Filters 

An HVAC system has air filters that rid air impurities. Considering the magnitude of the role played by these filters, changing them is recommended. If you don’t know how often you should change your air filters, an HVAC professional can help.

While some filters might need replacements every one or two months, others function well up to six months. If you have allergic family members or young children, changing your filters regularly shouldn’t be debatable. 

Unfortunately, most homeowners hardly pay attention to this small yet crucial component. Dirty filters contaminate the air in a home. Eventually, you end up with allergen risks, dust, and pet dander.

What’s more, your system will have to work more as it tries to clear the air through the dirty filters. Your system will perform dismally, and it won’t be durable. 

The Furnace

The furnace is the most significant HVAC component. It is usually in a special closet, attic, basement, or cellar. The furnace heats the air before it is distributed to your entire home. 

The heating process can be through a heat pump, solar energy, or combustion. Highly efficient gas furnaces have chambers that compress unburned fuel and carbon monoxide before they can ignite again. As a resultant, you will get as much energy as possible from the fuels and natural gas. 

Understanding HVAC System Components Promotes Proper Maintenance 

Your HVAC system components require the right maintenance so that their performance can remain desirable. Once you know each of these parts, taking care of each becomes possible. Besides, you can seek precise guidance from your HVAC provider on how to go about an issue. 

If you need heating and air conditioning services in South Carolina, contact us today. Our team of dedicated HVAC contractors is available 24/7.

John Daner
John Daner

HVAC Technician with 12+ years experience in the field.

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